- Teacher does little to introduce
- So as not to simplify the text or rob students of discovering things for themselves
- Students read to themselves
- Research shows students reading and re-reading improves their comprehension
- Teacher reads portion of text out loud
- Research shows that teachers reading out loud improves fluency and builds vocabulary—smoothes out comprehension bumps caused by dysfluency, allowing all to access challenging text
- Students paraphrase or translate into own words
- Research shows asking students to write about what they read strengthens their comprehension of texts
- Teacher asks a series of specific, text-dependent questions
- Text-dependent questions serve as the scaffolding. They sustain focus on the paragraphs, sentences and even words of the text. They ask for evidence to support claims.
- Students write an independent essay on that is text-based and requires evidence to support claims and connects reading analysis to writing.
- This is a means of processing and should be used as formative assessment.